Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Unlike traditional cosmetic bath salts, which are made to be added to bath water, toxic bath salt products have no legitimate use for bathing and are produced specifically for recreational drug abusers as legal substitutes for cocaine, ecstasy MDMAand amphetamines. The synthetic powder contained in bath salt products is typically taken by inhalation snortingby ingestion, or by intravenous IV injection.
In Octoberthe Drug Enforcement Administration DEA temporarily banned three synthetic stimulants commonly found in bath salts—— methylenedioxypyrovalerone MDPV4-methyl- N -methylcathinone mephedroneand 3,4-methylenedioxy- N -methylcathinone methylone —— as Schedule I substances under the Substance Control Act.
In this article, we briefly describe the legal and health care challenges of bath salts abuse. MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone——the principal active ingredients of bath salts products——are synthetic cathinones also known as substituted cathinones or cathinone derivatives that share many similarities with other Schedule I and II stimulants, such as cathinone, methcathinone, and amphetamine.
MDPV is also structurally related to pyrovalerone e. All three drugs have stimulant and hallucinogenic effects, and are highly addictive. None is approved for medical use in the U. The s and symptoms of bath salts abuse include cardiovascular abnormalities, insomnia, agitation, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, muscle spasms, seizures, severe paranoia, and aggression Table 1. Data adapted from U. Air Force; 2 Fass JA, et al. Department of Justice. The severe adverse effects associated with the use of bath salts have caused numerous individuals to present at hospital emergency departments.
One of these patients was dead on arrival.
Department of Justice, individuals under the influence of synthetic cathinones are prone to violent and unpredictable behavior and have caused harm and even death to themselves and others. Bath salts packaging was discovered on the adult male decedent and at his residence. Toxicology specimens obtained from the deceased couple showed the presence of MDPV and lidocaine. In another case, a year-old man committed suicide after snorting bath salts sold under the name Cloud 9.
Family members described the man as paranoid before he killed himself.
Routine toxicology screenings are unable to detect all of the chemical substances that constitute the various bath salt stimulant drugs. Physicians in EDs, urgent-care centers, and other settings might consider bath salts intoxication in persons without a psychiatric history who present with agitation, anxiety, and psychosis. Benzodiazepines, especially lorazepam Ativan, Pfizerare commonly used to treat the agitation and seizures associated with the use of bath salts.
Because antipsychotic agents have the potential to lower the seizure threshold, they should be administered with caution in patients suspected of having used bath salts. After recovery, bath salts abusers should be referred for psychiatric consultation.
Many of these individuals have a history of polysubstance abuse. This law increases the time, from 18 months to 36 months, that a substance may be temporarily ased to Schedule I. Most of the permanently banned substances under this act are synthetic cannabinoid agents.
The only permanently banned bath salts substances are MDPV and mephedrone. Both physicians and pharmacists can play an important role in increasing public awareness of the dangers of these products through patient counseling and participation in community outreach programs.
A trip on “bath salts” is cheaper than meth or cocaine but much more dangerous
In turn, health care professionals may benefit from continuing education programs on synthetic stimulants. With this increased awareness, clinicians would be better able to question patients and family members regarding bath salts abuse when individuals present with psychiatric symptoms without a history of psychosis. Pharmacists in health care settings would also benefit from keeping abreast of the legal and medical ramifications of bath salts abuse.
These practitioners may be called upon to consult with physicians on suspected cases of bath salts intoxication and may be involved in the referral of patients for substance abuse treatment.
Bath salts drug
Toxic bath salt stimulants remain legally available despite legislative attempts to control these dangerous substances. The tide of addiction, injury, and death resulting from the use of these drugs will not be stemmed until federal laws have permanently banned their sale. As key health care practitioners, physicians and pharmacists can help promote awareness of this problem in their communities. Professional continuing education is extremely important in this regard. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List P T v.
Synthetic cathinones (‘bath salts’)
Jennifer A. FassPharmD. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. See " The Nanomedicine Revolution " on This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Serious Side Effects Blood circulation problems e.
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Blood circulation problems e.